Ladder Safety Construction Regulations (78-84)

Articles

Ladders

78. In sections 78 to 84,

“extension trestle ladder” means a self-supporting portable ladder that is adjustable in length, consisting of a trestle ladder base, a vertically adjustable extension section and an adequate means of locking the ladder base and extension section together;

“platform ladder” means a self-supporting portable ladder that is not adjustable in length, where the highest standing level is a platform;

“single ladder” means a non-self-supporting portable ladder that is not adjustable in length and having only one section;

“step-ladder” means a self-supporting portable ladder that is not adjustable in length, having flat steps and a hinged back, and whose back section is either a single ladder or other supporting device, but does not include a step stool or platform ladder;

“step stool” means a self-supporting, portable, fixed or foldable ladder, not adjustable in length, and having,

(a) a height of 800 millimetres or less, excluding side rails, if any, above the top cap,

(b) flat steps, but no pail shelf, and

(c) a ladder top cap that can be stood or stepped on;

“top step” means the first step below the top cap of a step-ladder or, if there is no top cap, the first step below the top of the rails;

“trestle ladder” means a self-supporting portable ladder, non-adjustable in length, having two sections and hinged at the top so as to be able to form equal angles with the base. O. Reg. 345/15, s. 13.

79. A ladder shall be designed, constructed and maintained so as not to endanger a worker and shall be capable of withstanding all loads to which it may be subjected. O. Reg. 345/15, s. 13.

80. (1) A portable ladder at a project shall be manufactured and shall meet the design, performance, test and marking requirements of a Grade 1, Grade 1A or Grade 1AA ladder in the CSA Standard Z11-12, Portable Ladders. O. Reg. 345/15, s. 13.

(2) Despite subsection (1), a portable single ladder that is custom-built for use at a project may be used at the project if the ladder has,

(a) rungs spaced at 300 millimetres on centres;

(b) side rails at least 300 millimetres apart; and

(c) a maximum length, measured along its side rail, of not more than nine metres. O. Reg. 345/15, s. 13.

(3) If a portable single ladder under subsection (2) is made of wood, the ladder shall also,

(a) be made of wood that is straight-grained and free of loose knots, sharp edges, splinters and shakes; and

(b) not be painted or coated with an opaque material that obscures the wood grain or interferes with inspections of the ladder. O. Reg. 345/15, s. 13.

(4) If the rungs of a ladder under subsection (3) are of the cleat type, the ladder shall also,

(a) have side rails that are not less than 400 millimetres but not more than 610 millimetres apart;

(b) have side rails that measure not less than,

(i) 38 millimetres by 89 millimetres if the ladder is 5.8 metres long or less, or

(ii) 38 millimetres by 140 millimetres if the ladder is more than 5.8 metres long;

(c) have rungs that measure not less than,

(i) 19 millimetres by 64 millimetres if the side rails are 400 millimetres apart, or

(ii) 19 millimetres by 89 millimetres if the side rails are more than 400 millimetres apart; and

(d) have rungs braced by filler blocks that are at least 19 millimetres thick and located between the rungs. O. Reg. 345/15, s. 13.

(5) If a ladder under subsection (3) is a double-width wooden ladder, the ladder shall also,

(a) have three evenly-spaced rails that measure at least 38 millimetres by 140 millimetres;

(b) have rungs that,

(i) measure at least 38 millimetres by 89 millimetres,

(ii) extend the full width of the ladder, and

(iii) are braced by filler blocks that are at least 19 millimetres thick; and

(c) be at least 1.5 metres wide but not more than 2 metres wide. O. Reg. 345/15, s. 13.

81. (1) A portable ladder,

(a) shall be free from defective or loose rungs;

(b) shall be placed on a firm and level footing or support surface; and

(c) shall not be used in an elevator shaft or a similar hoisting area when the shaft or area is being used for hoisting. O. Reg. 345/15, s. 13.

(2) A non-self-supporting portable ladder shall be situated so that its base is not less than one-quarter, and not more than one-third, of the length of the ladder from a point directly below the top of the ladder and at the same level as the base of the ladder, if the ladder is not securely fastened to prevent its movement. O. Reg. 345/15, s. 13.

(3) A portable ladder or ladder section shall not be tied or fastened to another ladder or ladder section to increase its length unless the manufacturer’s instructions allow for this. O. Reg. 345/15, s. 13.

(4) A manufactured portable ladder shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. O. Reg. 345/15, s. 13.

82. (1) This section applies if a portable ladder is used as a means of access and egress between,

(a) levels of a building or structure;

(b) the ground or grade level to a building or structure; or

(c) different work surface levels. O. Reg. 345/15, s. 13.

(2) The ladder,

(a) shall extend at the upper level at least 900 millimetres above the landing surface;

(b) shall, subject to subsection (3), have a clear space of at least 150 millimetres behind every rung;

(c) shall be located so that an adequate landing surface that is clear of obstructions is available at the top and bottom of the ladder for access and egress; and

(d) shall be secured at the top and bottom to prevent movement of the ladder. O. Reg. 345/15, s. 13.

(3) Clause (2) (b) does not apply to a ladder lying on an excavation wall that is sloped, as required by section 234. O. Reg. 345/15, s. 13.

83. (1) When a step-ladder is being used, its legs shall be fully spread open and its spreaders shall be locked. O. Reg. 345/15, s. 13.

(2) No worker shall stand or step on,

(a) the top cap, top step or pail shelf of a step-ladder;

(b) the top cap or top step of a combination ladder when it is used as a step-ladder;

(c) the top step of the extension section of an extension trestle ladder; or

(d) the top step of a trestle ladder. O. Reg. 345/15, s. 13.

84. (1) Subject to subsection (2), an access ladder fixed in position,

(a) shall be vertical;

(b) shall have rest platforms at not more than nine metre intervals;

(c) shall be offset at each rest platform;

(d) where the ladder extends over five metres above grade, floor or landing, shall have a safety cage commencing not more than 2.2 metres above grade, floor or landing and continuing at least 90 centimetres above the top landing with openings to permit access by a worker to rest platforms or to the top landing;

(e) shall have side rails that extend 90 centimetres above the landing;

(f) shall have rungs that are at least 15 centimetres from the wall and spaced at regular intervals;

(g) shall have an adequate landing surface that is clear of obstructions at the top and bottom of the ladder for access and egress;

(h) shall be free from defective or loose rungs; and

(i) shall not be used in an elevator shaft or a similar hoisting area when the shaft or area is being used for hoisting. O. Reg. 631/94, s. 2; O. Reg. 345/15, s. 14 (1, 2).

(2) Clauses (1) (b), (c) and (d) do not apply to any access ladder on a tower, water tank, chimney or similar structure that has a safety device that will provide protection should a worker using the ladder fall. O. Reg. 345/15, s. 14 (3).

85., 86. Revoked:  O. Reg. 145/00, s. 24.

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